Monkey Forest Tales: What we have learned about Brumback night monkeys over the past 15 years?

Aotus brumbacki (Colombian Llanos) Nest

This is the sixth and last post of a series in which the findings of this project are presented. In this post, the findings for the Brumback night monkeys are described. These monkeys are small a size and the only nocturnal species in the study area. It is also the less studied species in this project.

We found them living in swamp, gallery and lowland forest and there is local people reports of individuals and groups in orchards too (Carretero-Pinzón & Defler 2008). They can use small forest fragments (< 5 ha) as home ranges for a few months while dispersing and probably while stablishing new formed groups (Carretero-Pinzón personal observations).

They use living fences as part of their home ranges and for dispersion between forest fragment in highly fragmented landscapes (Carretero-Pinzón et al 2010). Solitary individuals has been observed eating and moving in living fences.

Brumback night monkey groups in the area, are usually of three individuals and up to 5 individuals (Carretero-Pinzón 2013). Densities of this species are higher in small fragment that in bigger fragments (Carretero-Pinzón 2013).

We had observed this species eating pioneer plants in the forest fragment edges, as well as arthropods (Vargas 2011). These monkeys use dead palms, palms of Moriche and Unamas and tall vines as dormitories in fragmented areas (Carretero-Pinzón personal observations). One study in the area identify 10 vocalizations associated with activities made by a group of Brumback night monkeys (Vargas 2011).

This species is part of our new efforts as is one endemic Colombian primate species of which not much information is available.

References

Carretero-Pinzón, X. 2013. An eight-year life history of a primate community in fragments at Colombian Llanos. In: Primates in Fragments: Complexity and resilience, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Marsh, L.K. & C.A. Chapman (Eds). Springer Science+Business Media, New york.

Carretero-Pinzon X., Defler TR. 2018. Primates and flooded forest in the Colombian Llanos. En: Barnett AA, Matsuda I, Nowak K (eds) Primates in flooded habitats: ecology and conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., T.R. Defler & M. Ruíz-García. 2010. Uso de cercas vivas como corredores biológicos por primates en los Llanos Orientales. In: Primatología en Colombia: avances al principio del milenio. Pereira-Bengoa, V., Stevenson P.R., Bueno M.L. & F. Nassar-Montoya. Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Bogotá, Colombia.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., Defler, T.R. & S. Ferrari. 2008. Wild Black Capped capuchins (Cebus apella) feeding on a night monkey (Aotus brumbacki) in eastern Colombian Llanos. Neotropical Primates 15 (2): 62 – 63.

Vargas, M. 2011. Vocalizaciones de Aotus brumbackii (Hershkovitz, 1983) y su relación con las actividades en la vida silvestre, San Martín (Meta, Colombia). Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia.

Aotus brumbackii- Xyomara Carretero-Pinzón

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Monkey Forest Tales: What we have learned about black-capped capuchins over the past 15 years?

Unamas - SR Enero 2012 212

This is the fifth post of a series in which the findings of this project are presented. In this post, the findings for the black-capped capuchins are described. Black-capped capuchins are the second most common primate in the study area. These monkeys are medium size and very intelligent primates inhabiting the study area.

Where do you find and how many black-capped capuchins you find in a landscape depends both on how tall the forest is and how many fruit trees you can find in a forest fragment. Where to find them also depends on the type of cover surrounding that specific forest (crops and plantations or pastures). Additionally, in fragmented landscapes where no living fences or fewer forest fragments are present will have less black-caped capuchins (Carretero-Pinzón et al 2017).

 

Although group sizes of black-capped capuchins in fragmented landscapes are similar to groups in continuous areas. In the fragmented landscape, we had found bigger groups (> 20 individuals, usually more than 2 groups), which seems to be seasonal. Mostly had been observed in the study area in June, rainy season, although we still don’t know the reason (Carretero-Pinzón et al unpublished data).

They can live in fragments of gallery forest, lowland forest and swamp forest (forest patches composed mainly of Mauritia flexuosa with soils of a high-water table; Carretero-Pinzon & Defler 2018). Black-capped capuchins are more commonly found in the rural landscape than urban landscapes in the Colombian Llanos. This can be related with their intelligence and ability to enter houses and steal food. In rural landscapes this primate species is sometimes considered a pest. In the study area we know they can crop-ride maize, oil palm, orange, watermelon and enters to local gardens to steal fruits such as bananas, papayas and soursop (Carretero-Pinzón personal observations, local people reports).

Black-capped capuchins use living fences as part of their home ranges, suing them to get access to other forest fragments and to find fruit and arthropods. Most of the living fences they use are more than 10 m height, although they can use wire fences without any tree cover to disperse and move from one fragment to another (Carretero-Pinzon et al 2010).

Occasionally, stablished groups spend several days in small forest fragments (< 5 ha) using fruit trees and then return to the forest fragments they usually live in. This pattern seems to be seasonal and seems to be more common during the rainy season when some small forest fragment flood (Carretero-Pinzón personal observations).

Black-capped capuchins are opportunistic hunters of bird species in the study area, predating violaceous jay (Cyanocorax violaceus). They had also been observed in the area consuming a dead female of Brumback night monkeys (Carretero-Pinzón et al 2008). Domestic dogs, tayras (Eira barbara) and crested caracaras (Caracara cheriway) have been observed attacking young capuchins in wire and living fences in the study area (Carretero-Pinzón personal observations).

References

Carretero-Pinzon X., Defler TR. 2018. Primates and flooded forest in the Colombian Llanos. En: Barnett AA, Matsuda I, Nowak K (eds) Primates in flooded habitats: ecology and conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., T.R. Defler, C.A. McAlpine & J.R. Rhodes. 2017. The influence of landscape relative to site and patch variables on primates distrubution in Colombian Llanos. Landscape Ecology 32: 883-896.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., T.R. Defler & M. Ruíz-García. 2010. Uso de cercas vivas como corredores biológicos por primates en los Llanos Orientales. In: Primatología en Colombia: avances al principio del milenio. Pereira-Bengoa, V., Stevenson P.R., Bueno M.L. & F. Nassar-Montoya. Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Bogotá, Colombia.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., Defler, T.R. & S. Ferrari. 2008. Wild Black Capped capuchins (Cebus apella) feeding on a night monkey (Aotus brumbacki) in eastern Colombian Llanos. Neotropical Primates 15 (2): 62 – 63.

© Copyright Disclaimer. All pictures used on this web page are protected with copyrights to Xyomara Carretero-Pinzón. If you want to use any of these pictures, please leave a message on the website. Thank you.

Monkey Forest Tales: What we have learned about red howler monkeys over the past 15 years?

DSCN9773

This is the fourth post of a series in which the findings of this project are presented. In this post, the findings for the red howler monkeys are described. Red howler monkeys are the biggest primate species inhabiting the study area. They are also the most common species present in the area.

Where do you find them depends on the number of forest patches the landscape has, this means that it is more possible you find groups of red howler monkeys in landscapes where there are a lot of forest patches of any size. How many red howler monkeys you find in a landscape depends on how tall the forest is and the form of the forest patch (Carretero-Pinzón et al 2017).

Red howler monkeys use living fences as part of their home ranges, suing them to get access to other forest fragments and to find fruit and leave sources. Most of the living fences used by red howler monkeys have trees of more than 10 m height (Carretero-Pinzon et al 2010).

Red howler monkeys can survive in small forest fragments (< 5 ha) using them as home range as well as stepping-stones during male’s dispersal (Carretero-Pinzón unpublished data). We have seen males dispersing using pastures, wire and living fences, as well as passing secondary and tertiary roads (Carretero-Pinzón unpublished data, local people reports). Sometimes they also use electricity poles and cords to move, which causes them electrocutions (Local people reports). Recorded dispersal distance in the area is up to 4 km (Local people reports).

They can live in fragments of gallery forest, lowland forest and swamp forest (forest patches composed mainly of Mauritia flexuosa with soils of a high-water table; Carretero-Pinzon & Defler 2018). Red howler monkeys can live in rural and urban landscapes in the Colombian Llanos.

Red howler groups spent more time moving in search of food in smaller fragments than groups living in bigger fragments (Escudero 2005). Red howler monkey tends to consume more fruits, young and mature leave in larger forest fragments compared with smaller fragments. In the study area, we had found that they consumed plant species that are different from the families they consumed in continuous areas (Escudero 2005). They have been observed using herbaceous plants in the pastures near to the forest fragment edges, up to 200 m from the edge, eating on the ground in open pastures (Carretero-Pinzón unpublished data).

Red howler monkeys live in groups from 1 to 9 individuals in the study area, usually a couple of males and a few females and their offspring, similar to groups in continuous areas (Carretero-Pinzón unpublished data). Solitary males had been observed in the study area in fragments of different sizes (Carretero-Pinzón unpublished data).

Red howler monkeys had been observed covered by human bot fly in the fragmented and continuous area. In the study area, this external parasite seems to be more common in red howler groups living near to palm oil plantations (Carretero-Pinzón unpublished data).

Red howler monkeys are good seed dispersers and in the study area, they have been found to be highly selective. Seeds dispersed by this species is also different depending on the season in which the study is made. They are good disperser of fig species (Ficus spp.) in fragmented areas (Gaitan-Naranjo 2009). A comparison of the two main areas of this project found that in the area around the Unamas Natural Reserve red howler disperse more species than in the Santa Rosa area, this is related to the plant diversity found in those areas (Gaitan-Gomez 2017).

 

References

Carretero-Pinzon X., Defler TR. 2018. Primates and flooded forest in the Colombian Llanos. En: Barnett AA, Matsuda I, Nowak K (eds) Primates in flooded habitats: ecology and conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., T.R. Defler, C.A. McAlpine & J.R. Rhodes. 2017. The influence of landscape relative to site and patch variables on primates distrubition in Colombian Llanos. Landscape Ecology 32: 883-896.

Carretero-Pinzón, X., T.R. Defler & M. Ruíz-García. 2010. Uso de cercas vivas como corredores biológicos por primates en los Llanos Orientales. In: Primatología en Colombia: avances al principio del milenio. Pereira-Bengoa, V., Stevenson P.R., Bueno M.L. & F. Nassar-Montoya. Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Bogotá, Colombia.

Escudero, S.P. 2005. Patrón de actividad, recorridos diarios y dieta de Alouatta seniculus en fragmentos de bosque de galería San Martín Meta. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia.

Gaitán-Gómez, D. 2017. Comparación del tamaño y la capacidad de germinación de semillas dispersadas por Alouatta seniculus en paisajes con diferentes grados de fragmentación, durante la época de lluvias en San Martín, Meta. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia.

Gaitán-Naranjo 2009. Dispersión de semillas por parte de Alouatta seniculus en fragmentos de bosque (San Martín, Meta). Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia.

© Copyright Disclaimer. All pictures used on this web page are protected with copyrights to Xyomara Carretero-Pinzón. If you want to use any of these pictures, please leave a message on the website. Thank you.